How to Improve the Performance of Steel?
Australian alumina ban disrupts Rusal tungsten powder prices for chemicals. Patel said. "One possible outcome could be Chinese buyers buying alumina and reselling it through eastern Russian ports." Rusal has a 20% stake in the Queensland Alumina Refinery, which has a capacity of 3.95 million tonnes a year, thus providing Rusal with 790,000 tonnes a year, Patel said. In addition, Rusal's Nikolaev refinery in Ukraine, which has an annual capacity of 1.75 million tonnes, has been suspended due to the conflict, he added. WoodMac said Rusal was also experiencing supply chain problems at its 2 million tonne a year Aughinish refinery in Ireland.
Steel has the characteristics of high strength, corrosion resistance, high-temperature resistance, impact resistance, good plasticity and easy processing. However, the properties of steel are not only related to the production process and process parameters, but also related to the raw material ratio, raw material type, raw material purity and other factors.
In terms of chemical composition, the composition of steel includes carbon (C), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), silicon (Si), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), etc.
Why add tungsten to steel?
1. Tungsten is a kind of metal material with high melting point, high specific gravity and high hardness. Tungsten and carbon will form tungsten carbide (WC), which can improve the red hardness, thermal strength and wear resistance of steel, making it more suitable to be used as cutting tools and forging dies.
2. The effect of tungsten on grain refinement of steel is stronger than that of chromium, which can significantly reduce the overheating tendency of steel, and then improve the strength, toughness and thermal stability of steel.
3. The combination of tungsten with molybdenum, silicon and other elements can improve the corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance of steel, which is suitable for the manufacture of heat-resistant steel.
4. It can improve the yield point, fatigue strength, thermal stability, coercivity and hardenability of steel.
However, the addition of tungsten will promote decarbonization, prevent graphitization, and reduce the malleable temperature range and thermal conductivity. And if the distribution of tungsten carbide is uneven, it will affect the properties of the steel. Generally speaking, the tungsten content in alloy structural steel is between 0.3-1.0%; the tungsten content in heat-resistant leather steel is between 0.3-3.2%; and the tungsten content in alloy tool steel is between 1-18%.
Why add molybdenum to steel?
1. To refine the grain size of steel. The effect of molybdenum is even stronger than that of tungsten, which can significantly improve the hardenability and thermal strength of steel and prevent temper brittleness.
2. Molybdenum reacts with carbon to form molybdenum carbide (MoC), which has the effect of secondary hardening and can improve wear resistance and creep resistance.
3. Molybdenum can improve the tensile strength, toughness, thermal stability, coercive force, ductility and processability of steel.
4. Molybdenum is an element that reduces the austenite phase region and can be dissolved in ferrite, austenite and carbide in steel, thus improving the stability of carbides.
However, adding molybdenum may lead to: 1. Molybdenum oxide gas will be produced when heated; 2. Promote decarbonization and prevent graphitization; 3. Reduce the thermal conductivity of steel; 4. When the molybdenum content is more than 3%, the oxidation resistance of the steel will decrease. Generally speaking, the molybdenum content in alloy structural steel and tool steel is between 0.15-0.30%; the molybdenum content in stainless acid-resistant steel is between 1-2.6%; the molybdenum content in heat-resistant leather steel is between 0.4-1%; and the molybdenum content in aviation superalloys is between 0.35-7%.
Molybdenum-containing steel such as chromium-molybdenum steel is often used to make high-temperature and high-pressure valves and pressure vessels, screwdriver heads, bicycle parts and so on.
Tungsten and Molybdenum Powder Price
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Russia's Rokot-M carrier rocket is scheduled to launch for the first time in 2024.
The first launch of the Rokot-M carrier rocket is planned for 2024 from the Plesetsk cosmodrome, the general manager of the Khrunichev National Space Research and Production Center told TASS. The Rokot-M, a lightweight carrier rocket powered by liquid fuel, began development in 2018, with The Russian side using domestic components instead of Ukrainian components.
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